La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.
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If it is about the anxiety generated by the threat of losing a valuable item in the case of failure to pay a debt, the proximity of foreclosure or the presence of the collector would be the event signaling the probability of experiencing the concrete harmful situation, and leads to predict more exactly a possibility of efficacious coping with its consequences.
A CS entrevieta all of the characteristics of a state of severe stress, although not every stress state can be considered a crisis. The cognitive appraisal is also analyzed as a dual process in which the intermediary variables that support it are established: What can be done in such a situation?
In a CSby definition, there is great personal motivacionwl to what is at stake; this commitment is expressed in the high rank of importance that what is at stake has for the individual as a core theme of the crisis e.
Understanding motivation and emotion 4th ed. The strategy of formulation by levels suggested by Riso in his proposal about the theoretical and methodological foundations of cognitive therapy, which orients therapeutic action by way of a triple configuration organized in the manner of levels, each of which incorporates some cognitive product or process.
Fear as motivator fear as inhibitor: Evidences for the transcultural origin of emotion]. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: This emotional state can imply fear, anxiety, angst, sadness, or anger as well, but it can also imply adaptive challenging. Likewise, these empirical studies imply the development of systematic experiences of proactive modification of what has occurred in a CSin order to verify the predictions that can be made regarding treatment, whose characterization is made by way of BMI in CSwhich includes essential procedures of cognitive restructuring such as Socratic dialogue, of decision-making, as motivational interviewing, and of self-control of actions.
Specific beliefs of a scope more restricted to the particular situation around which the crisis occurs involve particular appraisals regarding the magnitude of harm, threats, or challenges, regarding what needs to be done to control the situation, and regarding the personal ability to manage the responses that are judged as efficacious. In this respect, there are numerous antecedents in some traditional areas of psychological research such as stress and motivation, particularly in those fields dealing with the application of motivational theories to the prevention of disease and the promotion of health.
An additional aspect is that related to the chronology of the events. These are situational characteristics that mediate the degree of threat a situation represents to the person, regarding the interpretations she might make.
Level 1 describes automatic thoughts and cognitive distortions, which are cognitive-type products that are more accessible for the explanation of a disorder. American Psychologist50 This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the characterization of a crisis as an event in which the occurrence of a harmful event generates the experiencing of a highly-intense negative emotional state, characterized in a generic way as emotional pain.
In this sense, the clarity of the solution has to lead to the double effect of increasing the confidence in the possibility of controlling harm or pain, and increasing individual confidence in the probability of effectively exerting such control. Certainly, efficacy expectations, both of response and of the person’s own ability, play a central role in the maintenance of the motivational process leading the person to initiate and stay committed to the implementation of a particular course of action, in this case a course of action that might lead to the solution of the crisis, whether by way of emotional coping, of instrumental coping, or of both, as suggested in the following proposal.
Personal interpretation of a situation lizatraga a crisis can be understood in the frame of the evaluations these authors consider as stressful, such as appraisals of harm or loss, threat, and challenge. Fear appeals and persuasion: Whereas it is difficult to make a distinction between these two emotions, they are two different entrfvista reactions Minsky, American Journal of Public Health61 This refers to the moment in the vital cycle in which an event occurs, in this case a CS.
Bandura argues for the preeminence of self-efficacy expectations in the control that the person exerts over her own actions, and for this reason these are the expectations that, in his view, prevail as determining factors of the agency a person exerts on her activity in general.
Self-efficacy is the substantial motivational complement of response efficacy, as it is entregista expectation with the ability to empower the person towards the performance of an action she judges will be able to transform, in this case, a CS.
Theoretical foundations and clinical case conceptualization]. Emotional pain is brought about by a cognitive attitude emphasizing loss, but with a parallel emphasis on hope and on attention to positive remnants in the very zone in which the crisis is produced and in other zones of the vital field.
The chronology rntrevista the events influences considerably the commitment a person has to the particular event occurring in a CS. Empirical validation of interventions. The CS is initiated with the presence of a set of objective triggering stimuli.
Using the extended parallel process entrveista to motivafional fear appeal successes and failures. In this section, we will analyze a fundamental aspect of a CSunderstood as a state of great psycho-biological alteration, in which emotional experience plays an intermediate role, which follows cognitive appraisal and antecedes coping in a cyclic process directed by successive reappraisals.
This feedback assumes a more evident and objective manifestation, no longer anticipatory, when a consequence of adaptation is produced which has retroactive implications by way of reappraisal loops which modify the original primary and secondary appraisals.
These authors characterize such factors in the following terms:. Brief intervention is understood as the involvement of motivational processes to enable the person to make decisions regarding emotional and instrumental coping which move her in the direction of emotional relief or solution of the crisis.
We do not argue this to be the only relevant characteristic of such a state, but we do emphasize it with the goal of projecting, based on this concept, the characterization of brief motivational intervention BMI in crisis situations. These are aspects of temporal parameter referring to the temporal imminence, duration, and motivacionaal.
Regarding the role of cognitive appraisal, the viewpoint that we adhere to in the proposal of DPP-CS is that of Lazarus and Folkman a, brelated to the functions of cognitive appraisal in the stress response. Just as an appraisal made during this period might lead to reducing the expectations lizarrga severity, it can also increase them, and just as it might lead to improving the efficacy expectations it can also worsen them.
It makes more sense to argue that the emotional experience of anger advances the person towards adaptation insofar as it favors the filtering of the situation through entrevlsta signification of challenge, than to argue that the anger stage is a systematic and necessary antecedent for adaptation. The highest levels of active involvement, leading the person to commit to and initiate the implementation of positive actions, can be expected in those cases on which high expectations of response efficacy and self-efficacy exist; on the contrary, the lowest levels of activity, with a predominant role of passive resignation and apathy, can be expected when there are low efficacy and self-efficacy expectations Bandura, A CS demands coping, which is why the person is faced with the need to find alternatives of action; this quest for alternatives is pressing, particularly when the interpretation of threat brings about anxiety, or the interpretation of challenge generates a challenge perception, stimulating in both cases the motiivacional for avoidance responses that prevent the worsening of harm or the influx of new harms additional to the one already experienced by the person.